Abstract—This paper presents a theoretical discussion of development as a manifestation of planned social change. In particular, the key points deal with existent practices of attaining the target of equitable quality education stipulated in Sustainable Development Goals. The study is aimed atproviding a different perspective on expected patterns, relationships and social institutions of the SDGs. It is based on an assumption that the current efforts to achieve the development targetsare still deemed to have not lived up to expectations yet. Thus, it is of importance to bring about a change of efforts so that the patterns, relationships and social institutions within the society can meet the demands and needs of the target community managed by PKBM Widya Dharma Nagari in South Solok Regency. Systematically, this paper outlines three main approaches to social change that include: (1) a human-oriented approach, comprised of psychodynamicand behavioral models, (2) a holistic approach, including the study of systems theory, and (3) a heuristic approach. Keywords—Approaches, Community Learning Center (PKBM), SDGs I. INTRODUCTION Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to not only exert widespread influence to the countries around the world, but also to every country that participates in the agreement. For Indonesia, Presidential Regulation No. 59 of 2017 on the Implementation of the Achievement of Sustainable Development Objectives was conceived accordingly. The policy establishes 17 goals and 169 targets that lead to the new national development indicators in Development Plan and the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015-2019.
This policy is specifically issued to ensure that every step taken is to achieve the following objectives: (1) to maintain the continuity of the economic welfare of the people; (2) to maintain the sustainability of community social life; (3) to maintain the quality of the environment; and (4) to foster the inclusive development and supportive governance in order to improve the quality of intergenerational life. Furthermore, the fourth goal of SDGs includes the following objectives: (1) all children under 5 years of age can develop their potential through accessible, quality early childhood development programs and policies; (2) all children are able to receive quality primary and secondary education focusingon learning outcomes and reducing drop-out rates to zero; and (3) an effective transition of young people to the labor market is taken into account. Achieving the SDGs requires the partnership of governments and private sectors alike. Within the private sector, the aforementioned objectives serve as clear and comprehensive organizations, guidelines philanthropy, for community business actors, academics, and other stakeholders in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating SDGs. II. accordance with the result of the National Long Term RESEARCH METHOD The approach used is a qualitative approach.
This study was designed with a case study design. Data collected from informants are data from interviews, observation and documentation. The subjects in this study were PKBM Widya Dharma Nagari managers in South Solok Regency. The methods used are interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis was carried out on all findings data through data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. Checking the validity of the data used three criteria, namely credibility, confirmability, and dependability. III. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Human-oriented Approach The implementation of both formal and nonformal education programs is exclusively based on a set of psychological variables assuming that human activities are the basis of all forms of social and cultural change. In actuality, however, psychologists and educators do not hold all-acceptable opinions and views. The paper mainly utilizes psychodynamic approach and behavioral approach. The psychodynamic approach relies on the theories of psychoanalysis and personality. The approach believes that all human activity and all its forms of change are largely determined by the psychological state; conversely,the behavioral approach believes that human behavior is the result of rewards and punishments given after the formation of a behavior. Consequently, this approach pays slightly little attention to the internal state of man as a determinant of behavior. Psychodynamic Model The transformation from the less developed society into the advanced society is the result of the change in the way of thinking of communities and their leaders.
There are two major principles in the psychodynamic model: (1) social and cultural change is the result of human actions; and (2) human actionsare determined by the internal state or the personality of the individuals. According to the theories of psychodynamics, one’s personality is the result of a combination of various innate elements such as instinct, need, and desire, among many others, as well as internalized social factors such as norms and values. It has been postulated that part of the personality is formed in childhood and becomes part of the subconscious, whereas, behaviors should be viewed as a consequence of the personality in regaining balance. It is, hence, assumed that internalized norms and values are likely to conflict with instinct and desire, resulting in repression, sublimation, aggression and frustration. It has become increasingly apparent that the development demands a change in the personality of society. As personality traits are formed in the early days and they are difficult to change, achieving the targets of development requires time; one cannot see the immediate results in a relatively short amount of time. A long-term sustainable effort is suggested to achieve the ideal development. In regards to understanding social and cultural change as a form of development, there are three main influential figures in the psychodynamic approach, namely Daniel Lerner, David McClelland, and Everett Hagen. First of all, Daniel Lerner suggests that the first element in the dynamics of social development is the mobile personality. Individuals with mobile personality have the ability to identify new aspects of their environment and have great empathy as a result of the socialization they experienced since early childhood. Further, Daniel Lerner also asserts that mass media communicationenables one to accelerate the process of developing empathy and modernity. The process of modernization includes the following stages: (1) the existence of a dynamic community core group; (2) dissemination of ideas and attitudes about mobility and development through the growth of mass media systems; and (3) the interaction of urbanization, read-write culture, industrialization and participation in media that leads to the birth of modern society. In addition, David McClelland pays more attention to the people’s internal motives.David McClelland argues that the need for achievement is a major aspect that drives the economic development.
The need for achievement is formed through the socialization of a person since childhood; therefore, McClelland emphasizes the importance of effort to enhance the need of achievement among the people. Although the need for achievement is the result of the socialization of individuals since their early childhood, it is, in actuality, can be achieved during adulthood. Another figure is Everett Hagen asserting that the relationship between social structure and the structure of personality signifies that any social change and development will not be happening without the change in the personality. He also asserts that traditional societies cannot develop quickly due to the conservative and authoritarian tendency of individuals in the traditional societies. He then adds that creativity, among others, is the most important element in the transformation of society to modernity. Another influential figure advocating psychodynamic approach is Paulo Freire.
The educator and philosopher proposes a psycho-social approach that emphasizes the importance of the critical consciousness process which includes the following stages: (1) a change of mentality that involves a real consciousness in a person in his natural environment and society; (2) an ability to analyze critically about causality and compare it to specific situations and other possibilities; and (3) a logical action with the purpose of change. These main principles postulated by Paulo Freire aim to change the society’s point of view of a previously pessimistic and fatalistic reality to an awareness of its ability to shape the environment and acquire necessary tools to change it. Behavioral Model Behavioral models argue that the environment provides a stimulus to human behaviors. Such stimulus may be in the form of rewards or punishments; giftsand rewards are utilized to provide reinforcement of expected behavior whereas penalties are used to eliminate unexpected behavior. The behavioral-oriented approach suggests that the development effort should aim at the formation of behavior. Such formation of behavior is carried out under the implementation of reward-reinforcementpunishment system. The approach is commonly used by government to promote a development program. As in South Solok Regency, the local government holds various competitions such as achievement competitions among PKBMs and Nagari, which are then accompanied by the provision of prizes and awards. The awards giving by the government of South Solok Regency is done to socialize certain behaviors to the community. These various awards are used to change people’s behavior patterns towards the achievement of sustainable development programs. The principle of punishment from the behavioral model is also applied by the Government of South Solok Regency in achieving the development targets, such as giving the title “left-behind village” to the Nagari whose achievement level of development targets is lower than the others. In another example, PKBM Widya Dharma Nagari also uses a behavioral model in the implementation of educational programs such as not providing academic administration services to residents holding Package B and C taking the learning program who are often absent during the learning process. B. Holistic Approach The Holistic approach proposes that there are several socio-cultural systems that are relatively quick to change compared to other socio-cultural systems. Additionally, there are few of new ideas that can seep easily into the socio-cultural system. Hence, it is clear that the holistic approach, based on a theoretical framework that explains the society and culture,is viewed as a system comprised of interrelated and interdependent elements. The more diverse a society is, the easier it is to embrace new ideas and change. Due to the heterogeneous nature, a diverse society has proved more adaptable than a homogeneous one. As such, the acceptance of the innovation by some people or the whole population will not disrupt the stability of socio-cultural system held by the community in question.In contrast, a homogeneous society has a strong tendency to resist new ideas for it fears that the changes will cause disruption to the unity and stability of the socio-cultural system. C. Heuristic Approach Every social situation is shaped by three interrelated cultural aspects: (1) ideology; (2) technology; and (3) social organization. An ideology acts as an ideal-normative paradigm—it is used to answer the question of why and where the society is going. As the ideology essentially promulgates a set of values, beliefs, and knowledge embraced by a group of people, it serves as a guideline of the society’s behavior and actions. Technology stands in stark contrast to the ideology. The term technology refers to activities or objects that a person or a group of people use to manage the environment around them. Without technology, a group of individuals cannot turn what they want into reality.It can help us visit other places, for example, yet it cannot advise us on what to do once we arrive there. That said, technology also includes the skills, tools, procedures, or methods possessed by humans. It provides an ample support and acts as a tool to solve problems. Advances in technology can aid one to take a shorter route, but it will never be able to give any advice as to what and how things should be accomplished. Social organization refers to the patterns of relationships, arrangements, and institutions used by humans to interact with others, or the ways in which individuals organize their relationships and interactions with others. The three elements of culture influence each other and determine the behaviors. Based on the heuristic approach, it has been postulated that any development effort will succeed if the cultural aspects are well-organized. Furthermore, Thomas J. La Belle develops the idea through three elements of culture centered round human behavior. It is believed that the patterns of community behavior can be changed through the three elements of culture in an integrated manner.
There are three ways in social alteration. Firstly, ideological elements should be translated intoa form of knowledge, beliefs and values. Ideological elements can be managed through education— bothformal and non-formal. The key is to develop a close, two-way approach to education. For example, it is reflected in a situation where some people are asked to process their online-based identity card while they are still illiterate. Secondly, methods, energy, and materials are required in changing the elements of technology. These elements can be managed through various community guidance efforts with in the area of engineering work. Also, providing sufficient infrastructures based on the materials and resources available is deemed necessary for the target communities.The introduction of an agricultural technology, for example, without supported by technical guidance and the availability of superior seeds and fertilizers will be futile, for the community will not be able to implement it in their agricultural business. Another example is where a community is encouraged to use free health services at the health center or Puskesmas, yet there are no facilities and paramedics available at the Puskesmas. Thirdly, the alteration of the elements of social organization includes relationships, structures and civic institutions. These elementscan be managed through structural and cultural approaches. For example, a community already has good knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding agricultural intensification. They also have mastered the techniques needed. Materials and technology needed are also available. However, the existing social organization is inadequate to support this. For example, credit institutions such as cooperatives that can provide loans for the purchase of superior seeds, fertilizer and medicines do not exist. IV. CONCLUSIONS Some essential principles from the discussion of the psychodynamic approach that can be contributed to the role ofPKBM Widya Dharma Nagari as nonformal education institutionare as follows (1) PKBM can contribute to development by affecting the personality of the learners and (2) PKBMshould develop a two-way communication in any learning activities. Only when a two-way communication is maintained will the learners’ personalities be affected. If non-formal education programs provided by PKBM do not actively involve learners in the process based on their personalities, the education system will not be able to contribute to sustainable development efforts. In the behavioral model, meanwhile, we can draw the following conclusions: (1) development efforts targeted by PKBM must specifically aim at the needs of target community in South Solok Regency; and (2) development efforts must use rewards and punishments mechanism so that the expected behaviors of the community can become a permanent habit. Related tothe holistic approach in the development, there are three conclusions as follows: (1) to avoid any negative disruption to the existing socio-cultural system, the impact of development to the whole system must be taken into account; (2) it is worth noting that development efforts cannot be viewed as simple causal events as in reality they are all interrelated; and (3) development efforts should be implemented in an integrated manner by utilizing all supporting elements and avoiding conflicts from other socio-cultural elements. Through this integrated approach, it becomes clear that there is an urgent need of coordination and cooperation between PKBM as non-formal education instituion and the government. Essentially,it is stated in the framework of development that all forms of non-formal education done by PKBM will not contribute to betterment of people’s lives without the aid of other development efforts. Likewise, the provision of aid, technology, and modern infrastructure will not be applicable to society if it does not have sufficient knowledge, firm beliefs and work values in accordance with the technology introduced. Finally, knowledge, beliefs, values, techniques, resources, and materials will not work well in the society without the support of patterns of relationships, structures and institutions. REFERENCES         E. B. Barbier and J. C. Burgess, “The Sustainable Development Goals and the systems approach to sustainability,” vol. 11, pp. 1–22, 2017. L. R. Bergman and M. 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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 29
Non Formal Education International Conference (NFEIC 2018)
Alim Harun Pamungkas Department of Non Formal Education Faculty of Education Universitas Negeri Padang Padang, Indonesia firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2019, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).