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Community Learning Center in Indonesia: Managing Program in Nonformal Education

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Yanti Shantini1, Dayat Hidayat2, Lesi Oktiwanti3 1Department of Community Education, Univeristas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia 2Department of Community Education, Universitas Singaperbangsa Karawang, Karawang, Indonesia 3Department of Community Education, Universitas Siliwangi, Tasikmalya, Indonesia Corresponding Author: Yanti Shantini

ABSTRACT The Center for Community Learning Activities (PKBM) is a community learning initiative established from, by and for the community. PKBM is a community-based institution (Community Based Institution). The purpose of this study is to explain definition of community learning center (PKBM) in Indonesia, PKBM standardization in Indonesia, PKBM program implemented in Indonesia, what changes have been achieved by the community, and what difficulties have been encountered in learning and empowering the community. PKBM Standardization according do National Education Standards. The quality assurance process of the PKBM institution as a guiding unit, that refer to the National Education Standards that has been set BAN-PNF (National Accreditation Board Of Non Formal Education)The scope of the PKBM program in Indonesia is divided into two programs, namely learning programs and business programs. PKBM and Rumah Pintar in empowering the community through the various programs offered are expected to bring change to the community, both changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Some difficulties in learning and empowering the community include low awareness of the importance of education, lack of availability of learning resources, lack of means and information media, ineffective communication networks with other parties, business development instruments not yet available, institutional capacity to facilitate capital strengthening very limited, and learning facilities and infrastructure are still very limited. Keywords: Community Learning Center, Empowerment, Community INTRODUCTION Human resources are very important in determining the progress of a nation, because of the uniques and have different potential. Lot of efforts are done to optimize it and one of it is through education. Therefore it is necessary to form a lifelong learning community. Lifelong learning is described in the Education 2030 Framework for Action as rooted in the integration of learning and living, covering learning activities for people of all ages (children, young people, adults and the elderly, girls and boys, women and men) in all life-wide contexts (family, school, community, workplace and so on) and through a variety of modalities (formal, non-formal and informal) which together meet a wide range of learning needs and demands. Education systems which promote lifelong learning adopt a holistic and sector-wide approach involving all sub-sectors and levels to ensure the provision of learning opportunities for all individuals. (UNESCO, 2016b, p. 30) Model of Lifelong Learning explained by Mocker and George (1982) in the following example: Learner I – “My

graduate.”; Learner II – “I need to learn about these new drugs, so I think I will attend that workshop.”; Learner III – “The certification board said I need to become competent in that area. Judy can teach me how to.do that.”; Learner IV “I’ve always wanted to learn how to keep good financial records. I bet I can learn that from my son’s accounting books.” These four statements are typical expressions of a person’s decision to learn. Together they represent the fundamental types of lifelong learning. The First type is formal learning, The Second type is nonformal learning, The Third is informal learning, and The Forth is self directed learning. In Indonesia education services are divides the Education sub systems which are Formal Education, Non-formal Education, and Informal Education. These three sub-system work together to build human resources in Indonesia. Non-formal education plays an active role in educating all people without age limit who carry out programs outside of formal education that function as a complement, enhancer, or substitute. Nonformal education functions to develop the potential of students with an emphasis on mastering knowledge and functional skills and developing professional attitudes and personalities (Law. National Education System, 2003). In Indonesia, one of the institutions that provide non-formal education services is CLC or PKBM. Community Learning Center or PKBM is a non-governmental organization that carried Education services in urban and rural areas to provide learning services to all people who have the desire to improve their quality of life through various programs. Learning activities in PKBM which is a follow up to the idea of Community Learning Centers has been known in Indonesia since the sixties. Institutionally, its pioneering in Indonesia under the name PKBM only began in 1998 in line with efforts to expand community opportunities for education services (Sudjana, 2000, 2). The Center for Community Learning Activities (PKBM) is a place of learning in the form of a variety of skills by utilizing facilities, infrastructure, and all the potential that exists around the environment of community life, so that people have the skills and knowledge that can be utilized to improve and improve their standard of living (BPKB East Java, 2000, 6). 1. Definition of Community Learning Center (PKBM) The Center for Community Learning Activities (PKBM) is a community learning initiative established from, by and for the community. PKBM is a community-based institution (Community Based Institution). PKBM terminology from the community means that the establishment of PKBM is an initiative of the community itself. By the community, implementation, it means that development, the and sustainability of PKBM is entirely the responsibility of the community itself. For the community, it means that the existence of PKBM is entirely for the advancement and empowerment of the lives of the communities where the institution is located. (Standards and Procedures for Implementing Community Learning Centers, 2012). PKBM is a place that provides life-long learning opportunities for everyone in the community to empower the community to become independent, improve the quality of life, and develop the community in the community (UNESCO, 2003) Some PKBM tasks include: (a) identifying and addressing community needs, (b) meeting the needs and interests of the community through various activities, (c) mobilizing resources in the community, (d) building close cooperation relationships and partnerships with organizations and institutions others, (e) monitor and review progress to help in future planning, and (f) document the strengths and weaknesses of PKBM activities (UNESCO, 2003). In an effort to carry out the PKBM’s task of meeting the needs and interests of the

community, PKBM has two main program activities, namely (1) learning activities, including PAUD, equality (Packages A, B & C), courses and women’s education; and (2) non-learning activities, including Community Reading Gardens (TBM), multimedia, Joint Business Groups (KUB), arts, and productive businesses (Directorate of Community Education Development, 2012). The PKBM component consists of: 1) the target / target community, every PKBM has a community which is the aim or target of its development. This community can be limited by certain geographical areas or communities with certain social and economic problems and conditions; b) learners / learning citizens, learners are part of the fostered community or other communities who have a high awareness of participating in one or more learning programs in the institution; c) educators / tutors / instructors / technical resource persons, educators / tutors / instructors / technical speakers are some of the community members or from outside who are directly responsible for the learning process or community empowerment in the institution; d) organizers and managers, the PKBM organizer is a group of local residents chosen by the community who have the responsibility for planning, implementing, and developing the program at PKBM and is responsible for the entire implementation of the program and the assets of the institution. Program / activity managers are those who are appointed to carry out certain technical / operational program activities in PKBM; and e) PKBM partners, PKBM partners are parties from outside the community or institutions that have agents or representatives or activities or interests or activities in the community who with an awareness and willingness have participated and contributed to the sustainability and development of a PKBM. While the success of PKBM is measured by looking at several parameters of PKBM: community participation, benefits to the community, quality and relevance of the program, and independence and sustainability of the country. (Directorate of Community Education Development, 2012) Chart 1. The synergy of PKBM and Society Source: Standards and Procedures for Implementing Community Learning Centers, 2012.

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To build a good PKBM, the character must continue to be formed and strengthened PKBM. Without having character, PKBM will be difficult to survive and develop in achieving its goals. There are 9 characters that must be possessed and developed in PKBM, namely: a) Concern for marginal communities who are lacking; b) Independence of implementation; c) Togetherness in progress; d) The significance of each program and activity; e) Partnership with all parties who want to participate and contribute; f) Flexibility of program administration; g) Professionalism in managing the institution; h) Transparency and accountability of program and institutional responsibilities; i) Continuous renewal (continuous improvement). (Directorate of Community Education Development, 2012). Below is data on the number of government and non-government PKBM spread in Indonesia: Table 1. SKB (Government PKBM) and PKBM (Non-Government) data per 2019 No. Province SKB (Government) PKBM (Non-Government) Total 1 Overseas 0 11 11 2 Prov. Aceh 22 274 296 3 Prov. Bali 9 76 85 4 Prov. Banten 5 305 310 5 Prov. Bengkulu 10 160 170 6 Prov. D.I. Yogyakarta 5 143 148 7 Prov. D.K.I. Jakarta 0 260 260 8 Prov. Gorontalo 9 87 96 9 Prov. Jambi 8 188 196 10 Prov. Jawa Barat 25 1,405 1,430 11 Prov. Jawa Tengah 33 694 727 12 Prov. Jawa Timur 18 969 987 13 Prov. Kalimantan Barat 8 197 205 14 Prov. Kalimantan Selatan 13 191 204 15 Prov. Kalimantan Tengah 8 113 121 16 Prov. Kalimantan Timur 14 137 151 17 Prov. Kalimantan Utara 3 51 54 18 Prov. Kepulauan Bangka Belitung 5 49 54 19 Prov. Kepulauan Riau 4 89 93 20 Prov. Lampung 13 249 262 21 Prov. Maluku 8 69 77 22 Prov. Maluku Utara 7 133 140 23 Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat 10 379 389 24 Prov. Nusa Tenggara Timur 20 203 223 25 Prov. Papua 8 394 402 26 Prov. Papua Barat 4 91 95 27 Prov. Riau 6 179 185 28 Prov. Sulawesi Barat 5 147 152 29 Prov. Sulawesi Selatan 24 395 419 30 Prov. Sulawesi Tengah 14 165 179 31 Prov. Sulawesi Tenggara 21 289 310 32 Prov. Sulawesi Utara 23 102 125 33 Prov. Sumatera Barat 20 222 242 34 Prov. Sumatera Selatan 11 234 245 35 Prov. Sumatera Utara 22 410 432 TOTAL 415 9,060 9,475 Source: http://bindiktara.kemdikbud.go.id/program-dan-layanan/data-lembaga Based on data from Directorate of Early Childhood Education and Community Education (2019), the number of PKBM in Indonesia is 9,045 PKBM institutions and 415 SKB spread in 34 provinces and abroad. The number of people studying PKBM was 1,014,974 and SKB was 94,330 people. The types of variations in the forms of PKBM according to www.banpaudpnf.kemendikbud.go.id are Learning Centers (Government PKBM), community-owned PKBM, State PKBM (DKI Jakarta Provincial Government), and PKPPS (owned by the Ministry of Religion).

PKBM Standarization in Indonesia PKBM Standardization according do National Education Standards. National Education Standards are minimum criteria regarding the education system in all jurisdictions of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. National Education Standards.The quality assurance process of the PKBM institution as a guiding unit, that refer to the National Education Standards that has been set BAN-PNF (National Accreditation Board for Non-Formal Education) as a form of quality assurance or accreditation process St existing PKBM institutions. The criteria are as follows: 1) Graduate Competency Standards (SKL), criteria regarding the qualifications of graduates’ abilities includes attitudes, knowledge and skills, 2) Content Standards, criteria regarding material scope and level competencies to achieve graduate competencies at the level Ana certain types of Education, 3) Process Standards, criteria regarding the implementation of learning in one unit education to achieve Graduation Competency Standards, 4) Educator and Educational Staff Standards, criteria regarding eligibility of qualifications and competencies relevant from educators / instructors and staf education / manager in the Course and Training Unit, 5) Facilities and Infrastructure Standards, criteria for learning spaces, places of worship,library, laboratory, workshop, creative place, learning media, tools and teaching materials, as well as other learning resources, needed to support the learning process, including use of information and communication technology, 6) Management Standards, criteria regarding planning, implementation and supervision educational activities at the satan educator level, in order to be achieved the efficiency and effectiveness of organizing education, 7) Educational Assessment Standards, criteria regarding mechanisms, procedures, and instrumental assessment of student learning outcomes, and 8) Financing Standards, criteria regarding components and unit operating costs education valid for one year. The Center for Community Learning Activities must fulfill specific requirements of each SNP (National Education Standards) are governed Bay its influence on quality directly has the potential to affect the quality and influences the effectiveness, efficiency, productivity of PNF (Non Formal Education) performance (preferably or Observed) are: 1) Graduate Competency Standards (SKL), ; 2) Content Standards, a. Type of service program, b. Curriculum; 3) Process Standards, a. Learning Planning, b. Implementation of learning, c. Supervision of learning; 4) Educator and Educational Staff Standards, a. Educator, b. Educational staf; 5) Facilities and Infrastructure Standards, a. Means, b. Infrastructure; 6) Management Standards, a. PKBM leadership, b. Work Plan, c. Organizing, d. Implementation of education unit management, e. Supervision of education units, f. Reporting the results of activities; 7) Financing Standards, a. Source of funds, b. Use of funds, c. Financial administration; 8) Education Assessment Standards, a. Planning for assessment, b. Implementation of assessment, c. Assessment of learning outcomes, d. Program / institution achievements. (BAN-PNF, 2014: 16-26) 3. Programs Organized by PKBM in Indonesia The scope of the PKBM program in Indonesia is divided into two programs, namely learning programs and business programs, among the programs are as follows:

SOP

PKBM learning program in Indonesia a. Literacy education is an activity to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic through a functional approach or which can be found and used in everyday life. b. Equality education is a program to develop academic abilities and skills for learning citizens who have limited access to formal or community education that makes equality education an alternative education. Equivalence education e. Women’s education is a service provided to provide knowledge, attitudes, and skills to women to maintain life, understand the balance between rights and obligations, and increase competitiveness to be able to actively participate in national development programs. f. includes equivalent to Package A elementary school/equivalent, Package B equivalent to junior high school/equivalent, and Package C is equivalent to high school/equivalent. c. Early childhood education (PAUD) is an education level aimed at children aged 0 to 6 years to help optimize the growth and development of children to have the readiness to enter further education. Non-formal PAUD is divided into several Parenting life skills education program to improve the capacity of parents and family skills with character education, prevent the risk of maternal and infant mortality, prevent neglect and violence against children, neglected children and children with legal problems, including education on family economic management g. Community reading parks are programs that provide literacy services to the community to stimulate and support the sustainability of the literacy program and build awareness. types namely playgroups (KOBER / Playgroup), daycare centers (TPA / daycare), and similar PAUD units (SPS). community learning PKBM business program in Indonesia d. The courses and training organized by PKBM are Educational services for people who need knowledge, skills, life skills, and independent business. The tactic that develops in economic development campaigns is developing entrepreneurship (Buttress & Macke, 2008; Cornwall, 1998; Henderson, 2002; Ring, Peredo, & Chrisman, 2010). Over the years, there have been several calls to pursue

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economic development that focus on entrepreneurship by taking a systems approach at the community or regional level (Emery & Flora, 2006; Feldman, 1994; Flora, Sharp, Flora, & Newlon, 1997; Korsching & Allen , 2004; Lichtenstein & Lyons, 2006, 2010; Lichtenstein, Lyons, & Kutzhanova, 2004; Lyons, 2002b). So that in Indonesia also has several business programs / businesses that are commonly carried out by PKBM, namely: a) PKBM business units, b) Business Learning Groups (KBU), c) development, community (partnerships), Community d) business cooperation business and networks e) efforts to increase community productivity and f) new job creation. The aspects of the business undertaken are a) making new businesses, b) expanding the supply, c) developing capital, d) improving quality, e) increasing business management capabilities, f) increasing the ability of innovation and product design, and so on. The explanation above is the various types of PKBM programs in Indonesia in the business field. From the results of data in the field that we collected from 9 institutions consisting of 8 PKBM and 1 Smart House. Business programs run by PKBM are very diverse, from the types of skills they teach, the products they produce, the systems or business patterns to the quality or standard of their products. The institution that we identified produces superior products that have been marketed to the public, although marketing efforts have not been optimal some institutions have tried to do business patterns professionally. The strengths of the business program run by PKBM are emphasizing the environmental conditions around the institution, seeing the potential of nature and human resources that can be maximized, in addition to that the program can also increase the income of learning citizens even though it is not yet significant, but at least the institution trains the community to do business so the motivation is built to do business alone or in groups so that they can be empowered and independent of PKBM and Rumah Pintar interventions. According to Azhar (2011), the learning model in entrepreneurship education and training uses a curriculum that has been prepared and developed on the basis of community needs that are oriented towards livelihoods and improving the living standards of learning citizens; facilitator activities in the form of providing entrepreneurial learning in the form of mentoring in production, marketing, and self-reliance of learning citizens; learning citizens actively participate in entrepreneurship education and training and develop and expand businesses; and learning methods implemented in simulations and group discussions, with an andragogical approach, practical and flexible, application of subject matter for increasing income by learning and doing around improving daily life. Life skills are one of the focuses of analysis in the development of an educational curriculum that emphasizes life or work skills (Anwar, 2006: 20). In general, quality of life initiatives aims to improve environmental conditions for the community, ensure diverse communities, create locally rich facilities, and so on. (Gertler, 2004; Leslie & Rantisi, 2012; Lewis & Donald, 2010; Sands & Reese, 2008) The life skills program is implemented in theory and practice, with a comparison of 30% theory learning and 70% practical learning. Implementation of learning through three stages of activities, namely: the initial activity of educators opening and starting learning. The core activities of educators apply media, methods, teaching materials that have been prepared. The implementation of learning does not only transfer knowledge but aims to provide useful skills for students. 4. Empowered Community through Programs The efforts of the PKBM and Rumah Pintar in empowering the community through the various programs offered are

expected to bring change to the community, both changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills. The following are the results of several studies that discuss the achievements of community change through programs in the PKBM and the Smart House. Richard Florida’s concept of “creative class” shows that an increase in the density of innovative people in jobs that generate new knowledge and ideas fosters economic development (Florida, 2002). Based on the results of Azhar’s research (2011, pp. 11-20), there was a contribution in the implementation of education and training conducted by PKBM to increase the knowledge and entrepreneurial skills of learning citizens, including the surrounding community members so that it affected the economic aspects in the form of increased income for learning citizens from each business unit managed. Meanwhile, the results of Oktaviani’s research (2019) show that a small industry has been formed under the auspices of PKBM which sells the products of the work of rural communities that are marketed directly on PKBM and also through social media Instagram. Increased knowledge and skills of the community so that it can produce quality products and selling value. Citizens learn to be able to market the results of conventionally marketed communities that are displayed with a display case and given a brand sign in front of the PKBM so that the public can know the existence of products and marketing that is done online in the form of promotions through social media namely Instagram. Rachmawaty’s research found that there was a change in entrepreneurial ability in learning citizens, including 1) changes in the ability to work and an entrepreneurial spirit of self-esteem seen from some residents learning when before joining the program did not have the courage to work, but after participating in learning most of the learning citizens were able to encourage self-making business products and honing their ability to make innovative business products, 2) changes in the ability to solve problems in entrepreneurial activities can be seen from the ability of citizens to learn in solving problems has increased, especially in solving problems determining the type of business. Determining the type of business field is considered a problem for learning citizens, because they do not yet know how the stages in determining the type of business field, but after participating in learning activities their knowledge about the stages of determining the type of business field increases, so they are able to solve the problem, 3) change in ability creative thinking and create innovative businesses in determining the type of business that is innovative and in accordance with market developments, as well as changes in the creativity of citizens learning in developing the latest taste innovations and packaging products that are more attractive, 4) Ability to work carefully and productively, this can be proven by seeing some of the learning citizens have been able to produce snack food products in the form of banana chips with more interesting flavor and packaging innovations, 5) The ability to market the products owned by learning residents is still in a simple stage. The marketing is only around the stalls around the residence, and some of the residents have learned to distribute their business products to traditional markets, 6) The ability of residents to learn to earn income, even though learning residents who have not been able to manage their businesses, always get orders for banana chips, even though production activities are not carried out every day. 5. Difficulties Faced in Learning and Empowering Communities In the implementation of PKBM programs there are several obstacles that become a difficulty in learning and empowering the community, including working hours of different learning residents, the distance and difficulty of learning distance to the institution, the limited number of tutors and the large

amount of tutors who are still very inadequate a factor of difficulty because it affects the tutor’s performance in learning and empowering the community. Another difficulty is that the community still has a low awareness of the importance of education, bearing in mind that even without going to school, they can earn a large income from the work he does (Irmawati, 2017). Besides, the lack of availability of learning resources makes it difficult for residents to learn to get references when learning and the weather conditions and the presence of learning citizens is an obstacle in the implementation of the program (Tamami). The general obstacles faced are the problem of lack of facilities and information media, the lack of facilities and infrastructure of the institution both in terms of quantity and quality, the ineffectiveness of communication networks with other parties, the level of compatibility of the labor market with graduate skills, and levels. Business development instruments are not yet available 4) Institutional ability to facilitate capital strengthening is still very limited, learning facilities and infrastructure is still very limited (Jumhari, 2014). CONCLUSION PKBM is a place that provides lifelong learning opportunities for everyone in the community to empower the community to become independent, improve the quality of life, and develop the community in the community. PKBM Standardization according do National Education Standards. National Education Standards are minimum criteria regarding the education system in all jurisdictions of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. National Education Standards.The quality assurance process of the PKBM institution as a guiding unit, that refer to the National Education Standards that has been set BAN-PNF. The scope of the PKBM program in Indonesia is divided into two programs, namely learning programs and business programs. PKBM learning program in Indonesia are literacy education, equality education, equivalence education, early childhood education (PAUD), courses and training, women’s education, parenting life skills education, and community reading parks. business programs / businesses that are commonly carried out by PKBM, namely PKBM business units, Business Learning Groups (KBU), Community business development, cooperation and community business (partnerships), efforts networks to increase community productivity and new job creation. PKBM and Rumah Pintar in empowering the community through the various programs offered are expected to bring change to the community, both changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills. there was a change in entrepreneurial ability in learning citizens, changes in the ability to solve problems, change in ability creative thinking, ability of residents to learn to earn income .Some difficulties in learning and empowering the community include low awareness of the importance of education, lack of availability of learning resources, lack of means and information media, ineffective communication networks with other parties, business development instruments not yet available, institutional capacity to facilitate capital strengthening very limited, and learning facilities and infrastructure are still very limited. REFERENCES  Anwar. (2006). Pendidikan Kecakapan Hidup (Life Skill Education). Jakarta: Alfabeta.  Azhar. (2011). Model Pembelajaran Kewirausahaan Pada PKBM Binaan SKB Kabupaten Temanggung Jurnal Kependidikan, Volume 41, Nomor 1, Mei 2011, Halaman 11 – 22  BANPAUDPNF. (2019). Variasi Bentuk PKBM. Tersedia [online]: www.banpaudpnf.kemendikbud.go.id  BAN-PNF, (2014). Instrumen Akreditasi Pusat Kegiatan (PKBM). Belajar Masyarakat http://web.banpnf.or.id. Oktober 2014

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